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Saturday, August 1, 2020 | History

3 edition of Formation of topological defects in phase transitions found in the catalog.

Formation of topological defects in phase transitions

Hardy M. Hodges

Formation of topological defects in phase transitions

by Hardy M. Hodges

  • 94 Want to read
  • 33 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Statementby Hardy M. Hodges.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsMicrofilm 90/17 (Q)
The Physical Object
FormatMicroform
Paginationleaves 3557-3567.
Number of Pages3567
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL2018821M
LC Control Number90953849

We study transformations of self-organised defect arrays at the nematic–smectic A liquid crystal phase transition, and show that these defect configurations are correlated, or “remembered”, across the phase transition. A thin film of thermotropic liquid crystal is subjected to hybrid anchoring by an air inte. David J. Weir's 60 research works with 1, citations and 2, reads, including: Vorticity, Kinetic Energy, and Suppressed Gravitational-Wave Production in Strong First-Order Phase Transitions.

This claim has been verified for spontaneously-broken global symmetries. We perform a series of simulations of complete phase transitions in the 2+1-dimensional U(1)-Abelian Higgs model, for a range of bubble wall velocities, in order to obtain a quantitative measure of the effect of bubble wall speed on the number density of topological defects. View Caroline Gorham’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Caroline has 5 jobs listed on their profile. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Caroline Title: Materials Scientist | .

The spontaneous transformations associated with symmetry-breaking phase transitions generate domain structures and defects that may be topological in nature. The formation of these defects can be described according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, which provides a generic relation that applies from cosmological to interatomic length scales. topological phase transition, which occurs at a different T aylor number than that for the dynamical transition of the problem. Howev er, it is quite often that both transitions .


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Formation of topological defects in phase transitions by Hardy M. Hodges Download PDF EPUB FB2

In the Big Bang theory, the universe cools from an initial hot, dense state triggering a series of phase transitions much like what happens in condensed-matter systems such as superconductors.

Certain [which?] grand unified theories predict the formation of stable topological defects in the early universe during these phase transitions.

Abstract These lectures will review symmetry-breaking phase transitions and the formation of topological defects, primarily in the context of cosmology but also with reference to condensed matter. The idea that early in its history the Universe went through a series of phase transitions will be by:   Topological defects formed at symmetry-breaking phase transitions play an important role in many different fields of physics.

They appear in many condensed-matter systems at low temperature; examples include vortices in superfluid helium-4, a rich variety of defects in helium-3, quantized mag netic flux tubes in type-II superconductors, and disclination lines and other defects.

2 Symmetry Breaking Phase Transitions and the Formation of Topological Defects 11 Spontaneous symmetry breaking 11 Symmetry restoration at high temperature 15 Exact solutions for strings 20 General remarks on topological defects 24 Defect formation and evolution in the expanding universe 25 3 Theoretical Framework This process should hold for every phase transition in the same universality class.

The role of topological defects in symmetry-breaking phase transitions has become a prime topic in cosmology and high-temperature superconductivity, even though direct imaging of these defects Cited by: Topological defects formed at symmetry-breaking phase transitions play an important role in many different fields of physics.

They appear in many condensed-matter systems at low temperature; examples include vortices in superfluid helium-4, a rich variety of defects in helium-3, quantized mag­ netic flux tubes in type-II superconductors, and disclination lines and other defects.

They are the unavoidable remnants of many symmetry breaking phase transitions. Topological defects can play an important role in describing the properties of many condensed matter systems (e.g.

superfluids and superconduc­ tors); they can catalyze many unusual effects in particle physics models and they may be responsible for seeding the. These topological defects form when the system is thrown out of equilibrium as it cools, or “quenches,” from a disordered phase into an ordered phase, inducing local pockets of order to grow and come together.

It is argued that topological defects of typical grand unification scales are produced by the curvature-induced phase transition more likely than by the Kibble mechanism. Properties of the new phase transition mechanism is clarified and its cosmological consequences are discussed.

More information: Fernando J. Gómez-Ruiz et al, Full Counting Statistics of Topological Defects after Crossing a Phase Transition, Physical Review Letters (). DOI: /PhysRevLett Journals & Books; Help Download PDF Download. Share. Export. Advanced. Physica B: Condensed Matter.

Volume1 MarchPages Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals. Author links open overlay panel Heather L. Topological String Defect Formation During the Chiral Phase Transition A.

Balachandran∗ Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York S. Digal† Fakulta¨t fu¨r Physik, Universita¨t Bielefeld, D, Bielefeld, Germany Abstract We extend and generalize the seminal work of Brandenberger, Huang and.

This book is the first comprehensive and coherent introduction to the role of cosmic strings and other topological defects in the universe.

This study has been one of the major driving forces in cosmology over the last decade, and lies at the fruitful intersection of particle physics and cosmology. After an introduction to standard cosmological theory and the theory of phase transitions.

The Kibble–Zurek mechanism (KZM) describes the non-equilibrium dynamics and the formation of topological defects in a system which is driven through a. 2. Symmetry breaking phase transitions and the formation of topological defects Spontaneous symmetry breaking.

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept which originated in condensed matter physics. As an example, consider the isotropic model of a ferro-magnet: although the Hamiltonian is rotationally invariant, the ground state is not.

One prominent universal element of many continuous phase transitions is the spontaneous formation of topological defects during a quench through the critical point 1, 2, 3. The microscopic dynamics. Download PDF Abstract: In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point).

This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): When a symmetry gets spontaneously broken in a phase transition, topological defects are typically formed.

The theoretical picture of how this happens in a breakdown of a global symmetry, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, is well established and has been tested in various condensed.

Abstract: Topological defects are ubiquitous in physics. Whenever a symmetry breaking phase transition occurs, topological defects may form. The best known examples are vortex lines in type II super conductors or in liquid Helium, and declination lines in liquid crystals.

We studied numerically external stimuli enforced annihilation of a pair of daughter nematic topological defect (TD) assemblies bearing a relatively strong topological charge |m|=3/2. A Landau- de Gennes phenomenological approach in terms of tensor nematic order parameter was used in an effectively two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, where spatial variations.

Since such a metamaterial is created by 3D self-assembly, its dimensions are not limited by nanofabrication issues. Unlike other typical metamaterial systems, such a macroscopic self-assembled 3D metamaterial may also exhibit reach physics associated with topological defects and phase transitions.When a symmetry gets spontaneously broken in a phase transition, topological defects are typically formed.

The theoretical picture of how this happens in a breakdown of a global symmetry, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism, is well established and has been tested in various condensed matter experiments.

In conclusion, we have shown that DPPC vesicles become crumpled at the transition to the tilted gel phase and propose that this morphology is the result of coupling between membrane curvature and topological defects in the tilt direction. Kinetic trapping of defects arises when pair annihilation is arrested by formation of regions of high/low.